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Effect of Nano TiC on Microhardness and Frictional Properties of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Printed M2 High Speed Steel
Received: May 14, 2022 / Revised: June 1, 2022 / Accepted: June 9, 2022 / Published: June 12, 2022
Car Mats To Fit Ford, Ranger, Pj (2006
In this work, TiC/M2 large metal matrix composites (MMCs) were prepared using a milling method and a laser layer melting method. By controlling the TiC content in TiC/M2HSS, the grain size, structure and tensile properties of the sample are enhanced. The results showed that when TiC/M2HSS was added with 1% TiC, the surface microhardness of the sample increased to a significant value and the wear rate decreased by about 39%, compared to pure M2HSS. The hardness and wear resistance of the TiC/M2HSS composite showed a decreasing trend as the TiC content increased, due to the increase of internal defects in the sample, due to the addition of excessive TiC. The physical structure of the MMC TiC/M2HSS samples prepared by LPBF is BCC phase, with some remaining FCC phase and carbide phase. This work investigated the possibility of improving the tensile performance of TiC/M2HSS samples by controlling the TiC content.
W. Breelor created high-quality steel M2 with a high carbon content, the steel was created in 1937, which is often used as a material that makes bones shiny due to its resistance better . Currently, the main production methods are casting and melting, electroslag remelting, and powder metallurgy. Traditional production methods depend on caste; However, its high alloy content will cause a difficult process of physical separation and carbide precipitation, making the next production process of high-grade steel explosive, preventing the application of high-grade steel [ 2]. In the 1960s, researchers developed a powder method to improve the separation properties of carbide. However, M2 HSS prepared by powder metallurgy still requires complex processing to produce the part, making it difficult to produce complex parts such as internal holes. Therefore, further development of the machining and forming process for M2 HSS is required.
Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) technology consists of a metal fabrication process that can be used to prepare parts with complex geometries and fine grains [3, 4, 5]. In the LPBF process, metal powder is placed on a powder bed and melted quickly and hard by high-speed laser cleaning, melting with a stability of 10.
S [6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. Kempen et al.  improved the warpage and cracking of HSS prepared in SLM successfully by heating the grains and investigated the microstructure of M2 HSS prepared by the SLM process. Liu et al.  showed that the solid structure of the HSS melt pool was significantly higher in the center of the melt pool than at the edges, according to MATLAB simulations. It was found that the solidity of the melt pool in the middle is longer than the temperature of the edge, which is also good for the growth of crystals. Caroline. Kempen et al.  prepared HSS lumps with a density of 98% using a substrate preheating temperature of 200 ° C. Therefore, the researchers above made a comprehensive study of the processing method, microstructure and physical aspects of M2 HSS and LBPF systems.
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Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have received much attention due to their excellent wear behavior [14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24] and stable TiC . . This compound is often added to metal matrices to prevent wear of the components due to its high melting point and strong chemical stability . Li et al.  prepared 316 L stainless steel containing TiC from LPBF and found that the addition of TiC refined the grain size of the sample, thus increasing the sample strength. Furthermore, Luo et al.  used LBPF to prepare a TiC-added magnesium alloy, which greatly improved the stability of the magnesium alloy. However, no studies have been conducted on using LBPF to prepare MMC and M2HSS as matrix. High quality steel is used as a tool for mechanical engineering; therefore, it needs good anti-wear to increase the working life. In this study, we used LPBF to prepare TiC/M2HSS composites with different properties, to investigate the potential of using the LPBF method to prepare TiC/M2HSS composites without cracking, and we investigated the TiC / M2HSS by microscopic. identity. and friction wear test performance.
The metal powders used for LPBF (range 15-53 μm) were obtained from M2 HSS ingots by Ar gas atomization and the powder chemical composition was determined by XRF (XRF-1800, Scimadzu, Kyoto, Japan), as listed in Table 1 .in the Learning Management System (LMS, Brno, Czech Republic), as shown in Figure 1a. The particle size distribution of the powders was determined using a laser diffraction particle distribution meter and the results are shown in Figure 1b. The plant is usually round with a Dv50 of 30.5 μm.
TiC nanopowders of irregular shape and average size of 100-500 nm (purity of less than 99%) and M2 HSS in aerosolized powder were used as raw materials. TiC nanopowders were added to the M2HSS powder in proportions of 1%, 3%, and 5%, then the bulb was ground and mixed with Ar air in a planetary mill. The ratio of ball weight to powder is 5:1, the speed of the ball mill is 240 r/min, and the ball hitting time is set at 4 h, while the powder is cooled after every hour of the ball mill for 15 min. After ball polishing, the TiC nanopowders were distributed over the M2HSS powder without any obvious distortion. Obtained energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, Oxford Swift 3000, Abingdon, UK) energy spectral surface scan of the prepared composite powder, as shown in Figure 1c, with different colors for Fe, Ti and C, which showed that the TiC particles were uniformly distributed on the powder. The powders were annealed at a temperature of 80 °C for 10 hours to promote the growth of LPBF.
All samples are printed on LPBF in laboratory equipment equipped with a continuous ytterbium fiber laser (peak power 500 W, wavelength 1080 ± 5 nm) and an optical system focusing on the F-hole θ of 254 mm focal length, which results. beam focused with a spot diameter of about 100 μm. The laboratory equipped the equipment with a preheating device that allows the stainless steel to be heated up to 300 ° C. During the LPBF process, Ar gas is used as a shielding gas to prevent oxidation and oxygen in the space produced is. below 100 ppm.
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Figure 2a shows the design of the LPBF system, where the 67 ° oblique zoning analysis method is used between the adjacent levels and the structural system to reduce the thermal stress , as shown in Figure 2b, where the area each extending 4 mm. separately, using a laser to scan adjacent areas. The printed samples are shown in Figure 2c, where two cubes, of 8 mm × 8 mm × 6 mm in size are used for microstructure, time detection, and hardness tests, and samples of 15 mm × 15 mm × 5 mm. A tensile stress test was used, which was cut from the substrate after it was processed using an electric pump machine (EDM, Jinli, Taizhou, China).
The density of the sample is determined according to Archimedes’ drainage method. The specimens were polished with 240 to 5000 grit abrasive paper and polished with a 1 μm diamond for 20 minutes prior to polishing.
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